IG-250 – Comprehensive Grounding and Bonding

IG-250 Course

iGround – What Sets Our Training Apart (PDF)

An advanced grounding/bonding/site survey training course, with a heavy emphasis on lightning generation, protection, and grounding considerations, will be performed to enhance the present knowledge base to the engineering teams. This class will provide the student the knowledge to understand key issues to telecommunication-related installations as well as the hands-on application of the test equipment, data collection/analysis, and report generation to communicate the deficiencies often encountered in the field. These issues may be related to a variety of components that impact lightning system evaluation, grounding, bonding, electrical safety, and electronic equipment performance.

Course Outline

Chapter One – Why Bonding/Grounding?

  • What is Grounding/Bonding?
  • NEC© definition
  • Overview of different systems
  • Lightning and Lightning Protection
  • Personnel Safety
  • Documentation
  • Personnel Involved
  • Where do we go from here?

Chapter Two – Electrical and Metering Principles

  • Volts, Ohms, Amperes
  • Lenz’s Law
  • Resistance and Diffraction
  • Circular Mils/Area of Conductor
  • Insulation Materials/ Temperature Coefficient
  • Impedance
  • Conductor Properties impacting impedance
  • Inductive Reactance/ Capacitive Reactance
  • Impedance of Conductors
  • Waveform Propagation

Chapter Three – Electrical Power

  • What is our goal?
  • Force
  • Work
  • Resistance
  • Types of Loads
  • Horsepower (HP)
  • True Power (Watts),
  • Apparent Power (kVA)
  • Reactive Power (VARs)
  • Power Factor (PF)
  • Displaced Power Factor and Cosine Theta
  • Leading Power Factor Issues
  • Lagging Power Factor Issues
  • Electrical Billing and Efficiency

Chapter Four – Utility/Premises Power Distribution

  • Electrical Transmission Overview
  • Electrical Distribution Flow
  • Substations
  • Voltage Regulators
  • Insulators and Reclosers
  • Power Factor Correction Capacitors
  • Wye and Delta Configurations
  • Single Phase vs. Three-Phase
  • Advantages of Three-Phase Power
  • Three-Phase Systems
  • Single-Phase Systems
  • Premises Wiring System Components
  • Separately Derived Power System

Chapter Five – Grounding Electrode System

  • Grounding Electrode System Purposes
  • Grounding Electrode System Components
  • The Earth as a conductor
  • Importance and Contributions to Soil Resistivity
  • Soil Resistivity Measurements
  • Earth Ground Resistance Nomograph Uses
  • Basics of Earth Ground Resistance Measurements
  • Other Approved Methods
  • Earth Ground Test Lab and Results
  • Improving Earth Ground Resistance
  • Types and Selection Criteria of Grounding Electrodes
  • Grounding Electrode Bonding
  • Grounding Electrode Conductor and Installation Req’s
  • Bonding Conductor Routing
  • Grounding Electrode Conductor Terminations
  • Electrolytic Corrosion
  • Bonding Systems Lab

Chapter Six – Equipment Grounding System

  • Equipment Grounding System Purposes
  • Types of Equipment Grounding Conductors (EGC’s)
  • Sizing of EGC
  • Voltage Drop Calculations for EGC
  • Types of Electrical System Faults
  • Conductor Routing
  • Fault Circuit Demonstration
  • Improper Neutral – Ground Bonding
  • Types of Wiring and Grounding Issues
  • Equipment Grounding Lab

Chapter Seven – Troubleshooting

  • IEEE® Categories of Problems
  • Troubleshooting Methodology
  • Types of Equipment to Use
  • Average Responding vs. True RMS
  • Wiring and Grounding Lab
  • Review Results

Chapter Eight – Telecommunication System Bonding

  • Purposes of the Telecommunications Bonding System
  • Telecommunication Bonding Systems Components
  • TIA 607
  • Small System Arrangements (TIA-607 & BICSI)
  • Large System Arrangements (TIA-607 & BICSI)
  • Types of Bonding/Grounding Problems
  • Sizing of Bonding Conductors
  • Conductor Sizing Practice Exercises
  • Raised Floor Bonding
  • Equipment Rack/Cable Tray Bonding
  • Bonding Between Buildings
  • Data Center Bonding
  • Two-Point Bonding Test Lab

Chapter Nine – Power Quality Disturbances/Monitoring

  • Categorizing Voltage Quality Issues
  • Determining If/When It’s a Problem
  • Manufacturer Guidelines
  • Monitor Displays
  • Interpreting the Data
  • Types of VQ Issues
  • Electrical Noise
  • Sample Graphs
  • PQ Monitoring Lab